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Wednesday, August 31, 2011

The star that should not exist

PHYSORG.COM

Science and technology news

The star that should not exist

August 31, 2011

The star that should not existAt the centre of this picture is a very unremarkable looking faint star, too faint to be seen through all but the largest amateur telescopes. This ancient star, in the constellation of Leo (The Lion), is called SDSS J102915+172927 and has been found to have the lowest amount of elements heavier than helium of all stars yet studied. It has a mass smaller than that of the Sun and is probably more than 13 billion years old. Credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2

(PhysOrg.com) -- A team of European astronomers has used ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) to track down a star in the Milky Way that many thought was impossible. They discovered that this star is composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, with only remarkably small amounts of other chemical elements in it. This intriguing composition places it in the "forbidden zone" of a widely accepted theory of star formation, meaning that it should never have come into existence in the first place. The results will appear in the 1 September 2011 issue of the journal Nature.


A faint star in the constellation of Leo (The Lion), called SDSS J102915+172927, has been found to have the lowest amount of elements heavier than helium (what astronomers call “metals”) of all yet studied. It has a mass smaller than that of the Sun and is probably more than 13 billion years old.

“A widely accepted theory predicts that stars like this, with low mass and extremely low quantities of metals, shouldn’t exist because the clouds of material from which they formed could never have condensed,” said Elisabetta Caffau (Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universit√§t Heidelberg, Germany and Observatoire de Paris, France), lead author of the paper. “It was surprising to find, for the first time, a star in this ‘forbidden zone’, and it means we may have to revisit some of the star formation models.”

The team analysed the properties of the star using the X-shooter and UVES instruments on the VLT. This allowed them to measure how abundant the various chemical elements were in the star. They found that the proportion of metals in SDSS J102915+172927 is more than 20 000 times smaller than that of the Sun.

The star that should not exist
Enlarge

An ancient star in the constellation of Leo (The Lion), called SDSS J102915+172927, has been found to have the lowest amount of elements heavier than helium of all stars yet studied. The pie-chart shows the star’s composition: it is almost entirely made from hydrogen and helium with only a tiny trace of heavier elements. Credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2

“The star is faint, and so metal-poor that we could only detect the signature of one element heavier than helium — calcium — in our first observations,” said Piercarlo Bonifacio (Observatoire de Paris, France), who supervised the project. “We had to ask for additional telescope time from ESO’s Director General to study the star’s light in even more detail, and with a long exposure time, to try to find other metals.”

Cosmologists believe that the lightest chemical elements — hydrogen and helium — were created shortly after the Big Bang, together with some lithium, while almost all other elements were formed later in stars. Supernova explosions spread the stellar material into the interstellar medium, making it richer in metals. New stars form from this enriched medium so they have higher amounts of metals in their composition than the older stars. Therefore, the proportion of metals in a star tells us how old it is.

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“The star we have studied is extremely metal-poor, meaning it is very primitive. It could be one of the oldest stars ever found,” adds Lorenzo Monaco (ESO, Chile), also involved in the study.

The star that should not exist
Enlarge

This picture shows the distribution of the light of different colours coming from the remarkable star SDSS J102915+172927 after it has been split up by the X-Shooter instrument on the ESO VLT. Different colours fall in different places in this strange picture and astronomers can use this data to find the chemical signals from different elements within the star, which show up as dark interruptions of the curved lines. The spectrum of the star appears to be triple at each wavelengths as it was split up using an integral field unit to collect as much light as possible. This ancient star has been found to have the lowest amount of elements heavier than helium of all stars yet studied. The only evidence of elements heavier than helium is two dark lines from the element calcium. Credit: ESO/E. Caffau

Also very surprising was the lack of lithium in SDSS J102915+172927. Such an old star should have a composition similar to that of the Universe shortly after the Big Bang, with a few more metals in it. But the team found that the proportion of lithium in the star was at least fifty times less than expected in the material produced by the Big Bang.

“It is a mystery how the lithium that formed just after the beginning of the Universe was destroyed in this star.” Bonifacio added.

The researchers also point out that this freakish star is probably not unique. “We have identified several more candidate stars that might have metal levels similar to, or even lower than, those in SDSS J102915+172927. We are now planning to observe them with the VLT to see if this is the case,” concludes Caffau.

Provided by ESO (news : web)

UFO sighting origins linked to Einstein's parallel universes, say top physicists



UFO sighting origins linked to Einstein's parallel universes, say top physicists


Submitted by Dave Masko on 2011-08-31

“How do you know you’re reading this sentence, and not floating in a vat on a distant planet, with alien scientists stimulating your brain to produce the thoughts and experiences you deem real," asks one of the world's foremost physicists."


UFO sighting origins linked to Einstein’s parallel universes, say top physicists
Image source of this view from “The Matrix,” a 1999 film with Keanu “Neo” Reeves -- in what’s been called “the famous lobby scene” -- that’s considered by many to be one of the greatest action scenes in film history: Wikipedia

Professor Brian Greene says “these issues are central to epistemology, a philosophical subfield that asks what constitutes knowledge, how we acquire it, and how sure we are that we have it? “Think of the universe like a deck of cards,” adds Greene while explaining “parallel universes” and “the deep laws of the cosmos,” and why there’s alien life and “another life” in what “popular culture has brought to a wide audience in the films such as The Matrix, The Thirteenth Floor, and Vanilla Sky. He then asks: “How do you know you’re not hooked into the Matrix?”

The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction-action film featuring Keanu Reeves -- in the photo that accompanies this story – that’s gained resurgence in Europe this summer with a new wave of university students discovering it. The Matrix is about a future where reality that’s perceived by most humans is actually a simulated reality created by sentient machines from an alien race whose job is to pacify and subdue the humans with technology. Thus, the “Matrix” is a film fan favorite for those who enjoy the cyberpunk and hacker subcultures, where philosophical and religious ideas – such as “the brain in the vat thought experiment.”

Green and Einstein think you “can’t know for sure” when it comes to parallel universes

“The bottom line is that you can’t know for sure. You engage the world through your senses, which stimulate your brain in ways your neural circuitry has evolved to interpret. If someone (alien life forms) artificially stimulates your brain so as to elicit electrical crackles exactly like those produced by eating pizza, reading this sentence, or skydiving, the experience will be indistinguishable from the real thing. Experience is dictated by brain processes, not by what activates those processes,” writes Greene in his new book that’s been compared to the writing of Albert Einstein.

"Now, if you shuffle that deck, there's just so many orderings that can happen. If you shuffle that deck enough times, the orders will have to repeat. Similarly, with an infinite universe and only a finite number of complexions of matter, the way in which matter arranges itself has to repeat,” explained Greene, the author of the new bestseller “The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos” in a recent NPR interview.

Greene, a foremost physicist, also wrote The Elegant Universe and The Fabric of the Cosmos. Greene received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University and his doctorate from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. He served on the physics faculty of Cornell University and Columbia University as “professor of physics and mathematics.” Greene is a colleague of Stephen Hawking and an expert on the work of Albert Einstein.

Today, Professor Greene says he’s tackling the existence of multiple universes in his latest book, The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos.

Recent discoveries in physics and astronomy, he says, point to the idea that our universe may be one of many universes populating a grander multiverse.

"You almost can't avoid having some version of the multiverse in your studies if you push deeply enough in the mathematical descriptions of the physical universe," he says. "There are many of us thinking of one version of parallel universe theory or another. If it's all a lot of nonsense, then it's a lot of wasted effort going into this far-out idea. But if this idea is correct, it is a fantastic upheaval in our understanding,” added Professor Greene during the NPR interview.

Stephen Hawking gets beyond UFOs and alien life with views on parallel universes

To help make the concepts of parallel universes accessible because of the challenging nature of new beliefs, the Washington Post featured a recent book review that features Stephen Hawking’s new book: “In other words,” writes Stephen Hawking, “not only is the Earth just one of several planets in our solar system and the Milky Way one of billions of galaxies, but our known universe itself is just one among uncounted billions of universes. It's a startling replay of the Copernican Revolution.”

The Washington Post review also noted Hawking’s strong views on parallel universes: “The conclusions are groundbreaking. Of all the possible universes, some must have laws that allow the appearance of life. The fact that we are here already tells us that we are in that corner of the multiverse. In this way, all origin questions are answered by pointing to the huge number of possible universes and saying that some of them have the properties that allow the existence of life, just by chance,” writes Hawking in the new book “The Grand Design.”

A foremost physicist, Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow are now trying to explain the now commonly held view that other life exists in the universe; and there are “Parallel Universes.”

What a parallel universe really means, they ask.

Are you in one now, they also ask.

Hawking making final warnings at a senior age and state in life

Hawking, who recently warned of “not trying to contact alien life because they are probably hostile,” needs no introduction in ufology circles, and Mlodinow, said a recent Washington Post review of The Grand Design. It noted how “Mlodinow is a Caltech physicist with a string of excellent books to his credit. Both Hawking and Mlodinow have taken on that ultimate question in a somewhat more rigorous form by asking three related ones:

Why is there something instead of nothing?

Why do we exist?

Why does this particular set of laws govern our universe and not some other set?

In recent interviews, Hawking also points to Einstein and his views on parallel universes.

What now been dubbed as common rules, says Greene, about the deep laws of the cosmos; while other top physicists view this new guidance as: “parallel universes that also have human life forms and Earthly features.”

“The cosmos does not have just a single existence or history, but rather that every possible history of the universe exists simultaneously,” writes Hawking, while noting “the theory of everything theory, if confirmed, will be the unified theory that Einstein was looking for, and the ultimate triumph of human reason.”

Hawking moves on from the “alien question” to how will the Earth handle an alien threat

In “The Grand Design,” Hawkins asks fundamental questions about the origins of the universe, but adds: it comes back to “extraterrestrials.”

Extraterrestrial life is defined as a term from the Latin words: extra "beyond", or "not of", and‎ terrestris "of or belonging to Earth" and is also defined as life that does not originate from Earth, but from other parts of the universe or even parallel universes.

In turn, Hawkins and Leonard Miodinow present what “they call the most recent scientific thinking about the mysteries of the universe.” In addition, Hawking has publically stated that “alien life exists,” and that we on Earth should “not be trying to get their attention.”

In his new book’s introduction, Hawking writes -- perhaps, he says, for the last time -- that “scientists have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge,” while also adding that there is “seemingly bizarre behavior observed in both the traditional conception of the universe and in parallel universes.

Monday, August 29, 2011

Heart Disease Risk Factors: Beware the Diagonal Earlobe Crease


Heart Disease Risk Factors: Beware the Diagonal Earlobe Crease

by Dr. Stephen Parker (Article selection and Commentary) on January 23, 2011

It is hard to know what to believe these days. Medical research is frequently biased (often by drug money) and off the mark.
Since the 1980′s, articles have been appearing about the “diagonal ear crease” (pictured below) and heart disease and mortality due to heart problems. Some physicians dismiss it as related to aging; however, a number of studies seem to control for this variable.

My conclusion after reviewing the literature? (There are more than thirty articles.) It is more likely than not that there is some correlation between the diagonal ear crease and heart issues.


92871 Heart Disease Risk Factors: Beware the Diagonal Earlobe Crease


Diagonal Ear Lobe Crease and Atherosclerosis: A Review of the Medical Literature…

Background

A significant number of individuals die from atherosclerotic disease of the coronary and carotid arteries without having classic risk factors and prodromal symptoms. A diagonal ear lobe crease (DELC) has been characterized in the medical literature as a marker that can identify high-risk patients having occult atherosclerosis. The oral and maxillofacial surgery literature, however, offers very little information on the subject.
Materials and Methods

The authors conducted a MEDLINE search using the key terms “earlobe crease,” “ear lobe crease,” “atherosclerosis,” “cardiovascular disease,” and “cerebrovascular disease.” They selected articles published in peer-review journals and gave preference to articles reporting randomized controlled trials.
Results

A majority of clinical, angiographic, and postmortem reports support the premise that DELC is a valuable extravascular physical sign able to distinguish some patients at risk of succumbing to atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Of particular interest to oral and maxillofacial surgeons is the reported association between individuals with DELC and the development of morbid cardiovascular events associated with the administration of general anesthesia. More recently, reports using B-mode ultrasound have also linked DELC to atherosclerosis of the carotid artery, and another report has related DELC to the presence of calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic radiographs. A minority of studies have, however, failed to support the association between DELC and atherosclerosis.
Conclusions

DELC is readily visible during presurgical/preanesthetic physical examination and, in conjunction with the patient’s medical history, vital signs, and panoramic radiograph, may assist in risk assessment and the identification of individuals needing further evaluation.






For the doubting Thomas’s amongst the readers, here are some links:





Increased all-cause and cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with the diagonal earlobe crease: a prospective cohort study.







Diagonal earlobe creases and fatal cardiovascular disease: a necropsy study.






The earlobe crease, coronary artery disease, and sudden cardiac death: an autopsy study of 520 individuals.





Diagonal earlobe crease as a marker of the presence and extent of coronary atherosclerosis.












Famed Scientist Richard Dawkins Destroys Rick Perry on Evolution

AlterNet.org

We all know Texas Governor and GOP Presidential Candidate Rick Perry is full of it with his anti-science agenda, and we've read about his close ties to a cadre of religious extremists who have anointed him for privileging religion over scientific evidence (his "pray for rain" moment being a prime example).

Still, a smackdown from none other than Richard Dawkins on the subject of those outmoded, dangerous beliefs has a particularly satisfying highbrow but low-blow quality to it. Dawkins, an evolutionary bioligist and outspoken atheist, delivered such a smackdown to Perry in the course of a Q and A in the Washington Post's On Faith column.

Dawkins said that while a candidate's views on evolution are not paramount, they're indicative of his or her ability to understand science and his or her general levels of educational literacy.

He also had harsh words for the valuation of ignorance among the Republican electorate.

Here are some choice excerpts:

There is nothing unusual about Governor Rick Perry. Uneducated fools can be found in every country and every period of history, and they are not unknown in high office. What is unusual about today’s Republican party (I disavow the ridiculous ‘GOP’ nickname, because the party of Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt has lately forfeited all claim to be considered ‘grand’) is this: In any other party and in any other country, an individual may occasionally rise to the top in spite of being an uneducated ignoramus. In today’s Republican Party ‘in spite of’ is not the phrase we need. Ignorance and lack of education are positive qualifications, bordering on obligatory. Intellect, knowledge and linguistic mastery are mistrusted by Republican voters, who, when choosing a president, would apparently prefer someone like themselves over someone actually qualified for the job.

***

A politician’s attitude to evolution is perhaps not directly important in itself. It can have unfortunate consequences on education and science policy but, compared to Perry’s and the Tea Party’s pronouncements on other topics such as economics, taxation, history and sexual politics, their ignorance of evolutionary science might be overlooked. Except that a politician’s attitude to evolution, however peripheral it might seem, is a surprisingly apposite litmus test of more general inadequacy. This is because unlike, say, string theory where scientific opinion is genuinely divided, there is about the fact of evolution no doubt at all. Evolution is a fact, as securely established as any in science, and he who denies it betrays woeful ignorance and lack of education, which likely extends to other fields as well. Evolution is not some recondite backwater of science, ignorance of which would be pardonable. It is the stunningly simple but elegant explanation of our very existence and the existence of every living creature on the planet. Thanks to Darwin, we now understand why we are here and why we are the way we are. You cannot be ignorant of evolution and be a cultivated and adequate citizen of today.

I'd love to see Dawkins debate Perry on live TV, wouldn't you?

By Sarah Seltzer | Sourced from 358

Posted at August 27, 2011, 9:36 am


Attention Governor Perry: Evolution is a fact

Q. Texas governor and GOP candidate Rick Perry, at a campaign event this week, told a boy that evolution is ”just a theory” with “gaps” and that in Texas they teach “both creationism and evolution.” Perry later added “God is how we got here.” According to a 2009 Gallup study , only 38 percent of Americans say they believe in evolution. If a majority of Americans are skeptical or unsure about evolution, should schools teach it as a mere “theory”? Why is evolution so threatening to religion?

A. There is nothing unusual about Governor Rick Perry. Uneducated fools can be found in every country and every period of history, and they are not unknown in high office. What is unusual about today’s Republican party (I disavow the ridiculous ‘GOP’ nickname, because the party of Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt has lately forfeited all claim to be considered ‘grand’) is this: In any other party and in any other country, an individual may occasionally rise to the top in spite of being an uneducated ignoramus. In today’s Republican Party ‘in spite of’ is not the phrase we need. Ignorance and lack of education are positive qualifications, bordering on obligatory. Intellect, knowledge and linguistic mastery are mistrusted by Republican voters, who, when choosing a president, would apparently prefer someone like themselves over someone actually qualified for the job.

Any other organization -- a big corporation, say, or a university, or a learned society - -when seeking a new leader, will go to immense trouble over the choice. The CVs of candidates and their portfolios of relevant experience are meticulously scrutinized, their publications are read by a learned committee, references are taken up and scrupulously discussed, the candidates are subjected to rigorous interviews and vetting procedures. Mistakes are still made, but not through lack of serious effort.

The population of the United States is more than 300 million and it includes some of the best and brightest that the human species has to offer, probably more so than any other country in the world. There is surely something wrong with a system for choosing a leader when, given a pool of such talent and a process that occupies more than a year and consumes billions of dollars, what rises to the top of the heap is George W Bush. Or when the likes of Rick Perry or Michele Bachmann or Sarah Palin can be mentioned as even remote possibilities.

A politician’s attitude to evolution is perhaps not directly important in itself. It can have unfortunate consequences on education and science policy but, compared to Perry’s and the Tea Party’s pronouncements on other topics such as economics, taxation, history and sexual politics, their ignorance of evolutionary science might be overlooked. Except that a politician’s attitude to evolution, however peripheral it might seem, is a surprisingly apposite litmus test of more general inadequacy. This is because unlike, say, string theory where scientific opinion is genuinely divided, there is about the fact of evolution no doubt at all. Evolution is a fact, as securely established as any in science, and he who denies it betrays woeful ignorance and lack of education, which likely extends to other fields as well. Evolution is not some recondite backwater of science, ignorance of which would be pardonable. It is the stunningly simple but elegant explanation of our very existence and the existence of every living creature on the planet. Thanks to Darwin, we now understand why we are here and why we are the way we are. You cannot be ignorant of evolution and be a cultivated and adequate citizen of today.

Darwin’s idea is arguably the most powerful ever to occur to a human mind. The power of a scientific theory may be measured as a ratio: the number of facts that it explains divided by the number of assumptions it needs to postulate in order to do the explaining. A theory that assumes most of what it is trying to explain is a bad theory. That is why the creationist or ‘intelligent design’ theory is such a rotten theory.

What any theory of life needs to explain is functional complexity. Complexity can be measured as statistical improbability, and living things are statistically improbable in a very particular direction: the direction of functional efficiency. The body of a bird is not just a prodigiously complicated machine, with its trillions of cells - each one in itself a marvel of miniaturized complexity - all conspiring together to make muscle or bone, kidney or brain. Its interlocking parts also conspire to make it good for something - in the case of most birds, good for flying. An aero-engineer is struck dumb with admiration for the bird as flying machine: its feathered flight-surfaces and ailerons sensitively adjusted in real time by the on-board computer which is the brain; the breast muscles, which are the engines, the ligaments, tendons and lightweight bony struts all exactly suited to the task. And the whole machine is immensely improbable in the sense that, if you randomly shook up the parts over and over again, never in a million years would they fall into the right shape to fly like a swallow, soar like a vulture, or ride the oceanic up-draughts like a wandering albatross. Any theory of life has to explain how the laws of physics can give rise to a complex flying machine like a bird or a bat or a pterosaur, a complex swimming machine like a tarpon or a dolphin, a complex burrowing machine like a mole, a complex climbing machine like a monkey, or a complex thinking machine like a person.

Darwin explained all of this with one brilliantly simple idea - natural selection, driving gradual evolution over immensities of geological time. His is a good theory because of the huge ratio of what it explains (all the complexity of life) divided by what it needs to assume (simply the nonrandom survival of hereditary information through many generations). The rival theory to explain the functional complexity of life - creationism - is about as bad a theory as has ever been proposed. What it postulates (an intelligent designer) is even more complex, even more statistically improbable than what it explains. In fact it is such a bad theory it doesn’t deserve to be called a theory at all, and it certainly doesn’t deserve to be taught alongside evolution in science classes.

The simplicity of Darwin’s idea, then, is a virtue for three reasons. First, and most important, it is the signature of its immense power as a theory, when compared with the mass of disparate facts that it explains - everything about life including our own existence. Second, it makes it easy for children to understand (in addition to the obvious virtue of being true!), which means that it could be taught in the early years of school. And finally, it makes it extremely beautiful, one of the most beautiful ideas anyone ever had as well as arguably the most powerful. To die in ignorance of its elegance, and power to explain our own existence, is a tragic loss, comparable to dying without ever having experienced great music, great literature, or a beautiful sunset.

There are many reasons to vote against Rick Perry. His fatuous stance on the teaching of evolution in schools is perhaps not the first reason that springs to mind. But maybe it is the most telling litmus test of the other reasons, and it seems to apply not just to him but, lamentably, to all the likely contenders for the Republican nomination. The ‘evolution question’ deserves a prominent place in the list of questions put to candidates in interviews and public debates during the course of the coming election.

Richard Dawkins wrote this response to Governor Perry for On Faith, the Washington Post’s forum for news and opinion on religion and politics.

Monday, August 15, 2011

The True Story The Apollo 18 Movie is Based On

Movies Online

Movie Columns

August 15th, 2011

The True Story The Apollo 18 Movie is Based On


Every single year Hollywood puts out a movie that is based off a true story. Last year it was the movie Unstoppable and this year it is Apollo 18. I have no idea how much truth there is to the Apollo 18 flight and the reason I finally started doing some looking into it is because of a recent comment that Dimension Films head Bob Weinstein said to EW. He told them quote;

“People intrinsically know there are secrets being held from us,… There are secrets that are really true to the world. It’s not bogus. …. We didn’t shoot anything, We found it. Found baby!”

Needless to say I laughed when I read that he was trying to sell us on an Apollo 18 mission that encountered an alien life form on the Moon that was secretly recorded and kept under wraps until now. But that does not stop some of you from believing that not only did Apollo 18 happen but so did Apollo 19 and Apollo 20 with some pretty shocking outcomes.

Just from watching the trailer for Apollo 18 it is hard to believe it is not Hollywood produced. Frankly there are scenes in JJ Abrams Cloverfield that looked more plausible then this new Apollo 18 movie.

That said in doing some looking it seems that there is a large group of believers who believe full heartedly that something strange did happen on the moon and that there is good reason we have never returned to the lunar planet. Most of this revolves around footage from Apollo 20 and interviews by William Rutledge one of the astronauts who now lives in Africa who not only went to the moon but claims to have entered a crashed alien craft and recovered an alien that has been called the Mona Lisa EBE.

William Rutledge was the Commander of Apollo 20 which is clearly not Apollo 18 which leads to the question what does William Rutledge have to do with Apollo 18? Well he is the only one that seems to talk about the flight from the limited reading I have done this morning. NASA doesn’t deny Apollo 18 existed so why is William the only one who talks about the Apollo 18 moon landing? Well that is where there is some truth in the trailer.

The Apollo 18, 19 and 20 flights were cancelled NASA and never happened. So why does William Rutledge have footage and technical knowledge of the flight and conducting interviews where he talks in detail about the flight of Apollo 20? Did Apollo 18 meet its demise on the Lunar surface at the hands of some sort of alien life form? Did it bring something back? Did William Rutledge and Apollo 20 also discover Alien life?

Frankly I can find very little reference to the Flight of Apollo 18 but a variety of sites have interviews with William Rutledge Commander of Apollo 20 and there is plenty of information on Apollo 20 and some on Apollo 19 which just begs more questions, what happened to Apollo 18? Did that flight happen as well and get covered up?

To sum up NASA’s stance is Apollo 18 / 19 and 20 did not happen. From the perspective of William Rutledge who has released photos and videos onto youtube under the aliased ‘retiredafb’ Apollo 20 took place on August 16th 1976. It was a joint Russian, American project to go to the moon and investigate the object on the hidden side of the moon and retrieve it. Do some looking on the web and you will find plenty of photos and a few videos and lots of details on the flights.

Ask yourself do you believe that Apollo 18 was as Commander Rutledge calls it ‘a mission to the moon to shake hands’? Or is it all a great big hoax? Did Commander William Rutledge and Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov and Leona Snyder really go the moon and did they really recover the alien life form below? Or is this all a well planned hoax? For me its a hoax but what do I know I spent a few hours reading and am by no means an expert.

Footage of An Alien Craft on the Surface of the Moon on the Apollo 20 flight released supposedly by William Rutledge.

Apollo 20 footage from the ship and of the Alien life Form found in the ship on the dark side of the moon. Watch the video my comments are below.

Two things stand out. Number one the video is grainy at all the most convenient times which is beyond absurd and so over played. Secondly the creature is about as fake as a wooden two dollar bill and lastly watch the other ‘astronaut’ flipping his camera and his notebook. The camera falls, namely it has weight and their is gravity. The ‘flip book’ that he makes notes in flips with lightning speed just like it would on earth where there is GRAVITY.

For much more detailed information on the Apollo 18/19/20 situation checkout the following sites which I read this morning. True or not they contain plenty of specifics and details! [ Details on Apollo 18/19/20] [ William Rutledge Interview ] [ Wikipedia Apollo 18/19/20 Flight Info ]

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